What is an Earthquake:
The intense and sudden shaking of the Earth is called Earthquake. It is often caused by the movement in the outermost layer of Earth.
Types of Earthquakes:
1) Tectonic Earthquakes:
The crust of Earth is consists of tectonic plates that are loose fragments of lands. The tectonic plates can move slowly in different ways such as towards each other, away from each other or sometimes they can collide or slide past each other. When two moving plats slide past one another, it generates strong vibrations or tremor that results in earthquake. This type of earthquake is called tectonic earthquake.
It is the most widespread type of earthquake that can be very devastating. It can produce severe vibrations capable of damaging a city in just few seconds.
2) Volcanic Earthquakes:
This type of earthquakes are less prevalent. As the name suggests, they are caused by volcanic eruptions. Volcanic earthquakes can be of two types:
i. Volcanic tectonic earthquakes:
It occurs after a volcanic eruption. Due to volcanic eruption the magma is released out that creates a vacant space to be filled. The adjacent mass of rocks moves towards vacant space to fill it. These movement of rocks to fill the space result in the collapse of surrounding rocks and causes earthquake that generates shock waves or vibrations that are transmitted across the Earth’s surface. So, this type of earthquake caused by stress changes in the solid rock after the release of magma.
ii. Long period earthquakes:
Long period earthquake are caused by the vibrations that are produced due to the movement of magma within the volcano before eruption. The movement of magma increases the pressure within below the Earth’s surface that disturbs the surrounding rocks and creates small earthquakes. Additionally, the unsteady movement of magma cause pressure changes and injection of magma into surrounding rocks to create earthquakes.
3) Explosion Earthquakes:
As the name suggests, this type of earthquakes are man-made which means due to human activities such as explosion of nuclear weapons or chemicals. Such explosions takes place underground and tends to release enormous nuclear energy thousands times more than atmospheric pressure and thus create earthquakes.
4) Collapse Earthquakes:
This type of earthquakes are low in impact and occur nearby underground mines and also called mine bursts. The induced stress around the mining area such as due to the explosion of rocks on the surface produces seismic waves and roof of the mine collapse. Due to this large masses of rock may fly off the mine face and the ground starts shakings that results in earthquake. Collapse earthquakes are also produced by landslides.
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