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21 Jun 2021


National Symbols of India
Important India GK Topics, India GK

National Symbols of India 

National Symbols of India As the name suggests, National symbols refer to the signs or artifacts that represent the culture and image of a country. The national symbols of India are chosen wisely thereby they perfectly depict the image of India. They are inspired by the culture, civilization and distinctive flora and fauna of India and thus instill a sense of pride and patriotism in the heart of Indians. List of National Symbols of India:

National Emblem

Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath
National Anthem

Jan Gana Mana composed by Rabindranath Tagore

National Song

Vande Mataram, composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee)
National Calendar


National Animal (on Land)

National Animal (Aquatic)

River Dolphin

National Bird

National Fruit


National Tree


National River


National Flower


National Reptile


1) National Emblem: It is one of the most common and popular national symbols of India. It is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. It comprises four Asiatic Lions standing back to back on a circular abacus. The abacus has the sculptures of an elephant, a horse, a bull and a lion. Each sculpture is separated from the another by a wheel of law (Dharm Chakra). The national emblem is mounted on an inverted (bell-shaped) lotus flower, carved out of a single block of sandstone. 2) National Anthem: Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. It is composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was sung for the first time on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of Indian National Congress. Its official duration is around 52 seconds. 3) National Song: Vande Mataram is the national song of India. It is composed by Bankimchandra Chatterjee. It was adopted as National Song on 24 Jan 1950 by Constituent Assembly. It was sung for the first time in 1986 at the Session of Indian National Congress. 4) National Calendar: The Saka Era was adopted by the Govt. of India in 1957 as the National Calendar with Chaitra as the first month and Pahalgun the last month. It starts on 22 March, has 365 days and 12 months. 5) National Animal: The Bengal Tiger (scientific name: Panthera tigris) is the National Animal of India. It is known for its grace, agility, strength, aggression and enormous power. It was declared as the national animal of India on 24 January 1950. In 1973, Project Tiger was introduced to check the reducing population of Tigers. 6) National Aquatic Animal: River Dolphin (scientific name: Platanistoidea) is the national aquatic animal of India. It is mostly found in the river Ganges. Due to its decreasing population, it is kept in the Schedule 1 of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. 7) National Bird: Peacock (scientific name: Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India.  It was declared the national bird of India in 1963. It is colourful bird with a fan-shaped crest of upright feathers on the top of the head, white patches around the eyes and beautiful feathers, i.e. it is a symbol of grace and beauty. 8) National Fruit: Mango is the national fruit of India. It is native to India, i.e. it is originated in India. India is the largest producer of mango in the world.  The scientific name Mango is Mangifera Indica. More than 100 varieties of mango are grown in India. 9) National Tree: The Banyan tree, whose scientific name is Ficus bengalensis, is the national tree of India. The huge structure and deep roots of this tree symbolises the unity of India. It is also known as Kalpavriksha which means ‘wish fulfilling tree’. Its branches root themselves and the new roots produce more trunks and branches. 10) National River:                                   The Ganga or Ganges is the national river of India. It is a sacred river of India that originates from the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas. It is the longest river of India, travels around 2510 km before emptying itself into the Bay of Bengal. 11) National Flower: Lotus (scientific name: Nelumbo nucifera) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower of India that has been described in various ancient mythological and religious texts. 12) National Reptile: King Kobra (scientific name: Ophiophagus hannah) is the national reptile of India. It is one of the most venomous or poisonous snake in the world. Its length is around 5.6 m or 18.5 ft. It is found in Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries. It hunts other snakes, rodents, lizards etc.

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